Preparing a Perfect PowerPoint Presentation

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Delivering a compelling PowerPoint presentation is essential and vital to your success in all fields. Your audience can be impressed if you convey the information in the PowerPoint presentation conventionally.

 A student can make a PowerPoint presentation as a part of an assignment while an entrepreneur pitching a business idea to investors and a manager asking for increased funding can also present the same. You can adhere to the 10-20-30 rule that states a PowerPoint presentation should not be more than ten slides, last a maximum of twenty minutes and use font size 30—however, this can change depending on the scenario and type of presentation. The process of creating a PowerPoint presentation needs precision. Some students lack computer literacy skills and hence have a sleepless night when assigned a PowerPoint presentation. All Researchers offers custom made templates to help students ease the process of creating a PowerPoint presentation.

Principles to use when making a PowerPoint presentation.

  • Focus on the presentation. When making a PowerPoint presentation, focus on the message you are relaying to the audience and how it is conveyed through the slides.
  • Ensure that the slides are short and contain adequate information. Avoid the use of extremely wordy sentences such that they draw the readers’ attention into reading rather than listening to the presentation.
  • The PowerPoint slides should support the point. In developing the slides, support the points that you have formulated. Ensure that you brief your audience on the outline and central theme before introducing the slides.
  • Incorporate graphics into the PowerPoint presentation. The graphics will help illustrate the points presented.

A PowerPoint presentation is used to deliver a live address on a given subject or a summarized presentation accompanying a larger piece of work.

Creating a PowerPoint presentation

  • Launch PowerPoint on your computer. The program will prompt you to choose a specific template; however, choose a blank document. If a prompt does not appear, then a blank presentation occurs by default.
  • Choose a design. You must settle on a design theme for the PowerPoint presentation. Ensure you scroll through the options to see the best fit. The design you settle for will appear in subsequent slides. The template offers custom color schemes and font.
  • Create a title page. Once you click the title box, you are can add your topic. The title page in a PowerPoint Presentation should only contain the title and sub-title. An image can be added to represent the title.
  • Add more slides. The number of slides added depends on the information.
  • Add charts, graphs, and pictures. The insert button has options for inserting pictures, online graphics that you can add a border to and edit in the Format Tab.
  • Add transitions. Click the Animations tab and click where you want it to appear.
  • Change the order. Drag slides in the order that you want.

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Tips when making a PowerPoint presentation

  • Understand the target audience. The color theme of your presentation depends on the target audience. Adults may prefer flat colors like white, black, dark blue, and grey to children who love bright colors with plenty of animation. Research the audience beforehand to minimize prejudices in the final presentation.
  • Prepare a brief presentation. Avoid lengthy PowerPoint presentation for the sake of the audience. Maintain the required timeline and give room for questions and comments. Stay within the aim of the presentation and avoid wavering off the topic.
  • Choose a specific subject matter for discussion. A PowerPoint presentation mainly revolves around the main theme and narrowing down the topic ensures you get the most out of your presentation. It is easy to respond to questions arising from the audience when you maintain discussion within the subject matter.
  • Structure your presentation. Ensure that your PowerPoint presentation is arranged consistently with a logical flow of ideas. It helps the audience in appreciating the information presented. Also, remember to highlight headings and sub-headings.
  • Create the main theme and diversify from the available ones. You will have originality if you use diverse PowerPoints. We offer custom-made themes that will make your presentation stand out for any of you who have issues with diversifying.
  • Practice on the overall presentation. You can adopt the verbal or non-verbal cues.

How to improve the overall presentation

  • Maintain the use of pronunciation and intonation
  • Observe personal grooming by ensuring your hair is well kempt and dressing is appropriate
  • Maintain eye contact with the audience

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Write a Commanding Statement of Purpose

A statement of purpose seeks to convince readers that you have sound academic achievements that will enable you to excel. A statement of purpose is an essay that seeks to understand the applicant’s academic objectives and motivation for the chosen career and to determine if they are a good match for the field they are applying.


A statement of purpose varies in length, preferably, one to two pages. Depending on the school, the word count can run up to 1000 words. Include your full names and the proposed field of study at the top of each page.


State your academic interest to undertake graduate study and their relation to your professional goals.


  • A hook statement that demonstrates your passion in the chosen field.
  • A description of your academic background in the field.
  • Extracurricular activities in the field.
  • Professional achievements in the field such as publications.
  • Expound on your reasons for choosing the specific graduate field and mention the specific features that the graduate school offers that have attracted you.

A statement of purpose outlines an applicant’s academic objectives for the chosen career to determine if they can join the field they have selected.

Writing a winning statement of purpose

The statement of purpose is composed of four different parts. The statement of purpose must demonstrate to the selection committee that you met all the set criteria and are meant to succeed in graduate school. A statement of purpose is single-handedly the only document in the application docket that hugely determines your admission. This statement, therefore, gives you the chance to prove your uniqueness to the selection committee.

Introduce yourself, your interest, and motivation

This should be brief and concise. Avoid writing an autobiography in this section. Briefly highlight your interest and the motivating factor to seek graduate study. More often, admission committees’ look for students with research interests that arise from experience. Your statement of purpose must demonstrate your interest and commitment in your chosen discipline and the viability of your background to support your ideas.

Highlight your undergraduate experience and career

  • Indicate any research you conducted: Briefly mention with whom, the title and the findings arrived at as professors are usually keen on such information.
  • Any work experience in your discipline: Graduate school is quite tasking, and you may be required to teach undergraduates in your area of study and conceivably design a course.
  • A completed thesis that apart from the scholarly curriculum requirements

The relevance of your activities

Ensure to highlight the activities you partook after graduation; company or non-company work, and the responsibilities held. Such activities speak your suitability for graduate study and demonstrate your interest in the field. Indicate how these responsibilities and the lessons learned have helped you focus on graduate school.

Elaborate your academic interests

  • Indicate what you would specifically like to study in graduate school. A proven way to distinguish your statement of purpose from the others is by discussing an idea that turns you on intellectually. It also sets the pace for the essay to cover something different other than yourself.
  • End in a positive manner as this is critical in indicating your readiness for graduate school and the intensive research work that is involved.
  • Look at the websites for professors you would like to work closely and name them, as it is a requirement. List departments you are interested in, include professors and their research.


A statement of purpose outlines an applicant’s academic objectives for the chosen career to determine if they can join the field they have selected.


  • A statement of purpose is written in an active voice, not passive.
  • Ensure the statement of purpose is coherent and logical.
  • In your statement of purpose, indicate any challenges you faced that deteriorated your grades, such as poverty.
  • Every point stated must be demonstrated. For example, if you say you are diligent, illustrate how.

Ensure you share with someone respectable your statement of purpose, preferably the professors writing your recommendation letters so that you get feedback.

Students are advised to desist from using the same statement of purpose in their applications to different schools. Instead, customize each to fit the desired program.

By All Researchers

Dissertation Research Question Tips

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You need to choose a dissertation topic before moving on to the step of developing a dissertation research question. The development of the research question is significant because it will impact other sections in your dissertation. Besides, it is the basis for deciding on a more suitable theoretical framework to rely on in the project. The dissertation research question helps to articulate the research gap or research problem to be addressed. Important sections like the methodology and literature review extend from the research question. We can conclude that the dissertation committee will not accept your proposal if the dissertation research question is unclear. The reason is that it is the dissertation research question that can make or break you and, therefore, ensure it is a good one.

Developing a strong dissertation research question   

By now, it is evident that a dissertation research question is essential. You can adopt several strategies for developing the dissertation research question. If possible, you can allow your interests to act as guidance in developing the dissertation research question.

Types of research questions

In the course of writing a dissertation, students will need to come up with different types of research questions. Keep in mind that the type of research question chosen in your dissertation defines the research methods and the type of research conducted.

These categories are often intertwined, and research questions may consist of a combination of two or more.

  • Descriptive research question
  • Comparative research question
  • Defining research question
  • Normative/evaluative research question
  • Explanatory/explanatory research question
  • Testing research question
  • Advisory, problem-solving and framing research question
  • Predictive testing research question

A dissertation research question is a problem statement that provides a research topic or subject of focus in a dissertation project.

Some of the dos in writing a dissertation research question

  • Conduct research
  • Locate gaps in the literature obtained during research because the research question will be filling the research gap
  • Look for methods used to study the research question because they will come in handy during the completion of your work.
  • Share ideas with the dissertation consultant as this process will help you refine, give clarity and significance to the dissertation research question.
  • Have a version of the research question that you are comfortable with
  • Maintain vigilance, ask for advice and guidance from the dissertation consultant about the concepts used in the dissertation research question
  • Refine the research question to make it strong and clear

Some of the don’ts on writing a dissertation research question

  • Avoid dissertation topics that are not interesting. The reason is that you will find it challenging to write and complete the dissertation research question.
  • Avoid writing a dissertation that you are not interested in because it can become extremely difficult or impossible to write.

Tips for writing a strong dissertation research question  


The research question needs to be intriguing and maintain the interest of the reader throughout the project. In making the research question interesting, students can avoid two traps.

  • Some research questions are fads which imply that a specific set of personal circumstances contribute to their creation. For instance, job application. A change of circumstances can lead to a loss of interest in the topic, and it becomes tedious.
  • Some research questions are convenient. The statement implies some questions result from the creation by an author to fit into their units and so, they decide it will suffice.

In general, ensure that you have an interest in the topic, you can back it with academic evidence and explore it in detail. The choice of a topic based on your interest motivates you to keep working and produce a good dissertation.

Clear and simple

A complex research question may lead to a complicated research process due to hidden, unclear thoughts. This implies that a good research question is elaborate, well-thought-through, and clear. A research question that may hide contradictory or irrelevant concepts may contribute to difficulty in parts of your work. During the process of writing the research question, most people are tempted to begin with the literature review and data collection which only generates a broad and vague research question. When the research question is muddled, the result is also muddled data and muddled analysis.

On the other hand, a clear and simple research question may become complex as you begin to deliberate on the situation you are studying. Your research will be guided by one question with several sub-components, and this shows the significance of simplicity and clarity.

A dissertation research question is a problem statement that provides a research topic or subject of focus in a dissertation project.

Consistent with the requirements of the dissertation

Before thinking of writing the research question, think of the course requirements. The scope of the research question must satisfy the learning outcomes for the course. For instance, one can choose to conduct a theoretical study without analysis of the empirical data, which will mean that they think carefully before making a choice. In such a case, they must give an account of the methodology and convince the reader that theoretical analysis helps to address the question comprehensively. Besides, it must be proved how theoretical models have been used to produce new insights into the subject.

Substantial and contains original dimensions

Your research question should avoid duplication of other research questions asked in the modules undertaken in your course. Coming up with a unique research question shows your imagination, the ability to construct and develop research issues. All of this is achievable when one has grasped the scope to develop a strong dissertation question.


The project and scope of the project must be realistic before embarking on it. Furthermore, the research question must be within your ability to tackle. For instance, ask questions like are the statistics available, are the people needed for the research accessible and are some of the documents necessary to collect the data within reach? In addition, the questions must cover concepts related to the research question. You must also ask yourself if the variables, indicators, phenomena, and observations are accessible? Is the data accessible within the limited time and resources? The following inquiry is important because the research question can appear feasible, but once the study has begun, it is otherwise. In such a situation, it is significant to write the problems honestly and reflect on the lessons throughout the research. If it is possible, develop a contingency plan with the supervisor to anticipate some of the issues to do with access.


 The research question should be of intellectual and academic interest to the audience in the field of study. As such, your research question should arise from issues raised in the course of the study or practice. Establish a clear purpose when you have decided to start embarking on the research.

By All Researchers

College Application Essay: 4 Key Tips

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What is a college application essay?

A college application essay is what an admissions committee looks at to determine whether they will admit a student or not. While study scores are important, this is how the admissions board figures out the personality of a student and determines whether they are a fit for the institution. This is what makes writing a college application essay a difficult exercise for most students. However, this does not mean that all hope is lost. Below, we outline tips that will help you get through the process of writing the college application essay successfully.

Application essays are not personal statements

College application essays are sometimes referred to as personal statements. A personal statement is an essay that students write as they apply to college and graduate school as well to show their dedication to pursuing a certain discipline within an institution.

The full application package, therefore, consists of:

  • Resume and CV
  • Personal statement
  • Cover letter
  • GPA and high school diploma
  • Awards and certificates

Students should, however, note that with a well-developed college application essay, then you may not need a resume.  A well-developed college essay must, therefore, be well-supported no matter the viewpoint of the student in question. The piece should, therefore, stand out but should not just make efforts to win the debate. Instead, it should earn the consideration of the masses, making them understand the subject matter better, no matter their inclination.

A college application essay is a letter of intent showing the reasons for an applicant to join a given college or learning institution.

Tips for writing the best college application essays


As the old adage states, preparation is key if you want to succeed. Prepare by reading through the college application essay prompt then brainstorming to come up with brilliant ideas to carry you through. Through the prompt, you will get to understand yourself, your ambitions and motivations. This is a positive step because you tap into your strengths and individuality.

Define your audience

Understand who you are writing for. A college application essay for medical school will be different from that of law school for instance. This is because you will need to highlight different keywords and use different approaches to the college application essays. Write when fully aware of your writer’s sense because this is not a speech. This means that while speaking may allow the student some freedom, they are limited to the confines of words and punctuation. This is how the writer gets to express themselves. Therefore, consider the audience, your message, the context and purpose of your college application essay before starting to write.

Additionally, avoid sensitive topics such as politics, gender, religion and violence.

Narrow down the topic

If you have a general question, you will have to pick the best among your ideas and work on it. A good way to do this would be to look at the different things that puzzle you or those that seem incomplete or phenomena that people do not seem to notice and start from there.

  • Additionally, you can explore online during the brainstorming process. By searching this way, you will get an idea of the format and content expected in college application essays.
  • Ensure that your main idea is visible in the whole of your writing and that you do not drift away in the course of your writing.

Avoid clichés and plagiarized work

Generic content and boring work will definitely be headed to the bin in such a competitive environment. Therefore, ensure that your essay can stand out in one way or another to better your chances.

By All Researchers

Writing a Scientific Abstract in Three Steps

A scientific abstract is a piece of writing that summarizes a research paper succinctly yet clear enough to allow the reader to know the content inside the article. Scientific abstracts are important because researchers read them first to determine whether or not the paper is relevant to their subject area and if to acquire it and read it. The abstract is the only part of a research paper that is availed to the participants of academic meetings and conferences. When you search through the electronic databases, you will realize that the abstract is the only part of a research paper that is available at no cost. In most cases, a scientific abstract is about two hundred to two hundred and fifty words. A scientific abstract comprises a title, information about the author (s), background, methodology used, study findings, and conclusions.

The first step to writing an informative scientific abstract is preparation.

Consider the following in the preparation phase:

Finish writing your research paper

Many authors usually write the scientific abstract last so that they capture the critical ideas mentioned in their article. In a scenario where an abstract is needed before you have completed your entire paper, such as for a conference, use an outline or a draft form of your article to come up with your abstract.

Go through your entire research paper

Take note of all the main points and write them down in a separate document. Once you have read the whole research paper, go through the points you highlighted and come up with content for your topic, research question, methodology, findings, and conclusion. Use the information you came up with to write your abstract.

Pay attention to keywords

Readers use keywords when searching for scientific abstracts in online databases. Identify the keywords that will help scholars to find your work with ease. Take note of them because you will use them when writing your abstract.

A scientific abstract gives a brief summary of a research paper. It informs the reader of the key details of the paper.

The second step to follow when writing your abstract is structuring it.

Below are the recommended structuring steps for your scientific abstract:

Discuss the background of your work

Use the content and keywords you derived from your paper to write a brief introduction (not more than three sentences) that explains your topic, the purpose of conducting the study, and the research question. The first sentence should be catchy to attract the reader’s attention to your work. The background is the shortest part of your abstract and should provide information that is already known about that subject matter and demonstrate how it is related to your work. The background also reveals what the reader does not know about that subject, therefore, helping them to understand what the paper is all about.

  • Look at your paper as an investigative tool of a specific scientific question. With that mindset, you will appreciate the fact that other researchers have interest in your research question.
  • Your background should provide a satisfactory response to the following questions. What did I learn/discover? What is the significance of my research question? What was known in my field of study about the research question before I embarked on this research? How will this study I am undertaking add to my field of study?
  • Use of active voice when writing your scientific abstract.
  • Avoid using pronouns such as “I” or “we.” Instead, use words like “this research,” “this paper discusses,” “my research,” etc.
  • Write your scientific abstract in the past or present tense. Do not use the future tense. For example, do not write “This study will evaluate” but “this study evaluates.”

Talk about your methodology
Discussing the methods you used to conduct your research and the steps you undertook comprise the longest part of the scientific abstract and is about 2-3 sentences long. State whether the methodology was quantitative or qualitative. The methodology can be surveys, interviews, data analysis, laboratory experiments, ethnographic fieldwork, etc. Your methods should provide content that addresses the following questions adequately.

What research design did you use?

What was the duration of your research?

What is your choice of sample size?

How did you choose the participants of your study?

Where did your research take place (the research setting)?

Mention the findings of your study

Discuss the results of your research in 1-2 sentences. Include qualitative and quantitative results and any trends that you identified. The results section is the most crucial part of the scientific abstract because it reveals what was uncovered by your work and the relevance of your study to other previous work. As such, provide adequate elaborations and details in this part.

Finish with the conclusion

It should capture critical ideas and should tell the reader the significance of your study. Restate the summary of your research and its conceptual or practical bearing on the study area. Mention whether your work has bridged the knowledge gaps in that field. Your conclusion should be based on relevant data and facts. Avoid personal opinions that are not evidence-based at all costs. Wrap up your writing with a strong conclusive statement.

Come up with a title for your scientific abstract

The title of your scientific abstract should capture the content in your abstract. It should persuade your readers to believe that the topic is pertinent, of great value, and original. You can use the title of your abstract for your research paper. Mention your name, the institution you are affiliated with, and your contact information below the title.

In some cases, a particular format might be needed for the title, such as the use of italics, uppercase letter, or bold depending on the preference of an organization, conference, or journal.

A scientific abstract gives a brief summary of a research paper. It informs the reader of the key details of the paper.

The last step when writing a scientific abstract is looking at the style and flow of your work. 

Follow the style and flow below:

Read your scientific abstract aloud and ascertain that there is flow and accuracy in your work. The information provided in your scientific abstract should flow smoothly. Use transitional phrases such as “moreover” when moving from sentence to sentence. Ensure that your sentences are meaningful and convey your findings accurately. When going through your abstract, adopt the mindset of another person. Ask yourself whether you would want to read the paper if you were another researcher. Putting yourself in the shoes of your reader(s) will help you to determine if your abstract is satisfactory enough to warrant readership. That way, you can spot any gaps with ease.

Proofreading your scientific abstract is essential

Always go through your work to check for any punctuation, spelling, or grammatical mistakes. You can use any approach to edit your work. You could print it out and correct with a pen or you could edit it from your computer. However, it is advisable to print it out to give your eyes a ‘fresh’ look as they may be numb for continually looking at your computer screen. A good writing style will appeal to your readers. As such, ensure that you use the correct mechanics of writing and grammar.

  • Use punctuation marks appropriately. For example, place periods and commas within quotation marks.
  • Avoid using prepositions at the end of your sentences.
  • Do not repeat the same nouns and verbs many times. Ensure there is variation in your use of verbs and nouns.
  • Do not use vague adjectives such as “many” and “very.” Instead, quantify your results using specific data that provide comparisons.
  • Do not use apostrophes for written years. Therefore, write “1850s” instead of “1850’s”.
  • Fish out irrelevant detail from your work. Add information if there are any gaps.

Check the word count of your scientific abstract

It should not be too lengthy or too short. A word count of 200 or 250 words is recommended. Adhere to the appropriate word count because some conferences and journals reject lengthy abstracts.

Ask a friend or colleague to go through your work

When another person reviews your work, they can spot any errors that you did not see or note parts that require adjustments that you initially thought were okay. Additionally, their input will help you to assess whether your scientific abstract makes sense to possible readers.


Discover more useful guides from our blogs:

How to write an accurate research paper outline

Tips for writing a succinct thesis statement

How do you write a dissertation literature review?


By All Researchers

Research Paper Outline: Key Tips

Just like you would need a map when visiting a new place, you need an outline so that you can better navigate the research paper. With a research paper outline, you are in a better position to avoid writer’s block. In this guide, we will guide you through the process of writing a proper research paper outline. Besides this guidance, we offer custom-writing services to students. Through these services, you are able to continue enjoying your life as we handle any types of assignments, including writing your outlines.

What is a research paper outline?

This is a plan that a research paper author writes to have a clear view of the rest of the paper. Through a research paper outline, you can quickly trace the central ideas of the paper. Also, the research paper helps the writer develop his/her ideas better. Unlike a table of contents, a research paper outline contains fewer details and does not need page numbers next to the sections. However, it is still important that a student dedicates their time to the development of the outline as it would help create a logical flow in the final paper. It is also important to note that most paper instructions will not ask you to write an outline, but if the word count exceeds 1000 words, a research paper outline should come naturally. Also, certain types of papers such as dissertations need an outline.

Types of research paper outlines

There are two types that a student can choose from depending on the length and complexity of the subject:

  • Formal: A formal research paper outline is made with the details of the paper in mind. The writer should be wary not to make any mistakes and can make use of numbers and letters to organize their work. Additionally, they can come up with subtopics that will be discussed and make a logical arrangement for the paper.
  • Informal: An informal research paper outline is simply a list that enables the writer to arrange their ideas. The writer does not need to pay special attention to its development and can be revised as you achieve all your outline goals.

How to come up with a good outline

  • Reconnaissance reading: We recommend that you start by reading what has been written on your topic by other authors. However, do not be tempted to go deep into the research because, at this stage, you are simply reading to find a unique angle for approaching your paper rather than researching for knowledge.
  • Objective: This is basically what as the reader; you want the reader to understand. Everything that follows this step should, therefore, follow through to fulfill the objective. This is where you include a thesis statement to help you with the rest of your paper. If you have difficulties figuring out what the thesis statement should be, contact us and we will help you out.
  • Main points: The next step. Logically, would be to create a list of the main points you want to put across. You can start this step during reconnaissance reading if your ideas seem clear to you from the beginning. After that, you can make additional points at this later stage. However, this is not where you need to invest most of your energy, taking us to the next point.
  • Organization and revision of main points: After making your list, it is time to revise them. Figure out a good structure for these points and arrange them according to the order of their importance or according to logic. Cross-check that every point is in place and none is misplaced and eliminate. Also, eliminate any extra information that does not fit into the scope of your research.

Discover more from our blog:

The top 5 tips on writing a concise thesis statement

What does a dissertation literature review entail? Find out here

By All Researchers

Thesis Statement: Let’s Learn

A thesis statement synthesizes the main idea behind a written text in a single text. The reader can get a glimpse of the content discussed in the body of the essay. You must endeavor to write a strong thesis as it determines whether the reader will continue reading your work or not. Writing a thesis statement helps in organizing and developing the body of the text.

Creating a Thesis statement

It takes a long process to come up with a thesis because the writer has to research, draw inferences, compare and contrast ideas. All of the above-mentioned activities are based on evidence gathered. Integrate the few thesis statements you develop from research materials with your arguments. As you proceed deeper into crafting your paper, you will realize that your thesis and arguments might need a few adjustments to correlate.

Writing a thesis requires effort and creativity from the student. Sometimes you will find yourself in a position in which you still have no idea how to go about your thesis statement even after reading the guide and doing research.

Tips for writing a thesis statement

  • Identify the topic you want to write about.
  • Limit the topic. Cover a limited scope so that it helps you in writing a thesis statement that is narrow.
  • Brainstorm. Reflect on different ideas, arguments, and evidence before writing a thesis. The ideas put together will be of help in writing a thesis and shaping your essay.


  • Be specific: As you are writing, ensure that it captures the major theme reflected in the text. The main idea should have enough evidence to support it
  • Put the thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph: It is unusual to place the thesis statement in the conclusion or body.
  • Have a strong statement. The statement should be well thought and worded. Weak thesis statement deters the reader from more of your work.

Example of a strong statement

College graduates should take part in two-year community service before joining university to pursue degrees to increase their responsibility, diligence, and discipline.

Points to remember

  • Ensure the word count is no more than 40 words.
  • The argument in the body should support how the two-year training will help in the transition of students to the university.
  • Always ask yourself if answers the questions “how” and “why” are addressed. If your readers ask themselves these questions, then you have a broad thesis statement.
  • Ensure you state an argument and use facts to support your viewpoint.

Types of theses

Writers encounter problems in differentiating the thesis statements while coming up with a “working” thesis statement.


It analyzes a topic. In this type, you define the topic and evaluate some of its aspects. Analytical thesis statements are considered the most challenging.


An analysis of the study conducted by the World Bank reveals that one challenge facing African countries is an inability to tap into their natural resources fully to propel economic development.

The thesis highlights the topic, which is the study conducted by the World Bank, and how it will evaluate the problem faced by African countries.


An explanatory thesis is mostly used in research essays. You should desist from openly declaring a stand on the issue at hand when writing this type of thesis statement. In an explanatory statement, the thesis statement announces the subject to the reader. It further lists aspects of topics evaluated.


Illegal drug use in Mexico and Colombia has led to an increase in insecurity and violence in the country.

The explanation that follows should highlight the effects of illegal drug use and give supporting evidence.


An argumentative statement is a form of personal response to a particular subject. You should present a challenge to the readers in an understandable manner. An argumentative thesis statement is a claim and not a factual statement. Therefore, the rest of the paper should bring out arguments that support the claim.


College graduates should take part in two-year community service before joining university to pursue degrees to increase their responsibility, diligence, and discipline.

The argument presented in the paper must give evidence to demonstrate the claim by the writer on the importance of the two-year community service before pursuing a university education.

If you are working on a research paper, perhaps you could use our research paper outline guide for reference.

By All Researchers

Dissertation Writing Tips

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A dissertation refers to the final project that students submit as evidence of having completed their core research project. It is also the research paper that Ph.D. students present before the award of their doctorate degrees. A dissertation is frequently confused with a thesis. It is not uncommon for scholars to encounter problems during dissertation writing that can cause a huge set back in their academic progress.

Problems Encountered During Dissertation Writing

  • Procrastination. We can all collectively agree that most students do not set a time frame to stick to during dissertation writing. Having a timeline ensures that you avoid the last-minute rush, which renders your dissertation writing a tedious process.
  • Poor research skills. Research skills are fundamental in dissertation writing, as it is the basis of any dissertation.
  • Poor writing skills. It is a common problem among academicians in dissertation writing. The major hurdle occurs in citations when information from additional sources are used. If done incorrectly, the writer is often accused of plagiarism that leads to a fresh writing process.
  • right places, such as journal articles, books, web articles, among others.

The Research Part

  • Ensure that you have spoken to your supervisor on the title and draft outline of your research.
  • Make a timeline for the project.
  • Look for information in the right places, such as journal articles, books, web articles, among others.

Sections of a Dissertation


The introduction is a crucial aspect of the dissertation paper as the writer formulates a thesis statement at this stage. A thesis statement is a single sentence where the main idea behind the paper is highlighted. A thesis statement should be narrowed as a broad one obscures the main idea in the essay.

Clear definitions of terms used in the dissertation writing are explained in this segment, and the writer states the background of the problem. Also, the purpose of the research is stated.

The Main Body

The main arguments surrounding the topic are raised, expounded on concisely and evidence to support the arguments given. In dissertation writing, quotations are used to increase the authenticity of the paper.

The main body can be subdivided into the following chapters;

Literature Review

It is a review of the research process.


This chapter mostly focuses on the research questions, hypotheses, and data analysis. The writer expounds on the location of resources and the implementation of the data collection results.

Data Analysis and Findings

This is one of the most important chapters as it directly answers the research questions.


The conclusion is mostly done in a rush with excitement to complete the paper. Writers should take their time to draw a coherent conclusion as it depicts strongly in work.

Features of a Good Conclusion

  • Summarizes the main arguments behind the paper without making it ambiguous and redundant.
  • Offers recommendations that can be taken into account in future research.
  • Briefly explains your findings and how it can make an impact on fellow scholars. Also, the practical implementation of the findings in the real world.


A bibliography list must be presented to show the sources that were used in research. The correct citation style must be adhered to.

Editing and Proofreading

Editing is a crucial aspect of dissertation writing as it is focused on the structure of the dissertation. It is meant to correct any gaps that arise and add more detailed information. At this stage, one may seek professional editing services.


Feedback from colleagues and mentors in the field is valuable as the opinion improves the quality of the paper.

Are you working on your dissertation? Find out how to approach the literature review section here.

By All Researchers

Dissertation Literature Review: A Guide

Table of Contents

What is a dissertation literature review?

A dissertation literature review explores existing academic resources pertinent to a specific area of research. It also provides a context in a research project by evaluating past research on the current research project. Academic resources include journal articles, books, websites articles, other published dissertation projects, etc. A literature review offers new perspectives on the subject matter.

Purpose of a literature review

  • Provide intellectual context to your research and positions it with similar works on the topic.
  • Increase a scholar’s knowledge of the research pertinent to the central theme.
  • Gives an overview of what has been explored on the dissertation topic.
  • Identifies gaps in existing research that you can offer new perspectives on.
  • Help in the discovery of applicable research methods on your dissertation topic.
  • It provides the scholar with opposing viewpoints on the research content.

Before drafting your dissertation literature review, seek your supervisor’s consent on the dissertation topic. Be specific on the areas your literature review will cover and start looking for relevant research material.


A dissertation literature review is dependent on other chapters and variables in the dissertation, such as findings. For example, you may find that you lack enough evidence to justify the relevance of the source; hence you will alter the literature review.

The main part of the dissertation literature review is a discussion and analysis of the sources used. An introduction to the main discussion and a concise conclusion summing up the main points of discussion is included.

The literature review is introduced by:

  • Outlining the context of your literature review: Discuss how your dissertation topic relates to the subject matter in your sources.
  • Outlining the scope of your dissertation literature review: Mention the sources you will use books, journal articles, etc. and areas to be discussed.
  • Outline how and why you have selected the sources for review.
  • Provide a logic (aims and reasons) for reviewing the literature on the specific topic.

The main body comprises:

  • Critical evaluation and analysis of themes.
  • Integration of common themes to come up with detailed and well-reasoned conclusions.
  • Comparison and contrast of common themes to the research topic.

Below is a guide on the conclusion of a dissertation literature review:

  • Highlight how the literature review has met the aims stated in the introduction.
  • Offer suggestions for further research areas.
  • Summarize the main ideas related to the topic and research question identified in the dissertation paper.
  • Outline the significance of the identified themes for your dissertation topic.
  • Outline how your research aims to address the gaps in the sources.

Avoid the following common mistakes

  • Not linking the literature review to your dissertation topic: The literature analyzed must be pertinent to the topic.
  • Describing the literature word for word instead of analyzing the major themes relating to the subject matter.
  • Not discussing the literature sources in context: Analyzing content that is not relevant to the research topic is a mistake.

The presentation of your literature review must exhibit the following:

  • Selecting and quoting the most relevant material for your argument.
  • The quotation used must be within context and logical.
  • Introducing and integrating only relevant sources to the dissertation literature review.
  • The use of citations to emphasize the reported work by the author. Citations include:
  • Integral citations are where the name of the author is cited at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Non-integral citations refer to the author by the use of footnotes and parenthesis.

It is important to use headings and sub-headings in organizing the chapters in the dissertation to enable cross-referencing. Cross-referencing is vital as you refer to the literature gathered when explaining your findings.

If you need help with your dissertation sections, feel free to explore our dissertation writing services.

By All Researchers