Principles of Management


When World War II started, Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent the following memo to the British Admiralty: “Please tell on a single side of a sheet of paper the state of readiness of the British Navy to win a war today.”  As you can realize, a well-crafted memo summarizing all essential information on a given topic is a most effective tool that can lead to clear understanding and effective decision-making.


  1. Write a business memo (use Times New Roman 12 pt. size font.  Fit your thoughts in one standard letter-size page.  Be clear, concise and logical.  Avoid misspelling words, company names and trademarks.
  2. Provide the required essential information about a well-kown company.  Identify the major decisions, milestones, innovations and/or policies that explain its growth over time.  
  3. Use your own phrases and sentences – don’t just copy my example and simply change the facts because that would be plagiarism, which is punishable with an F.


The format is shown on page 2, and an example is provided on page 3. The Email must include:

  1. Company Overview:  You will begin by explaining why you selected this particular company, then include all the required information.  Note that the key part of the assignment consists of identifying the main reasons that explain its growth.
  2. Close by focusing on your next assignment:  At the conclusion of the memo you will identify the specific topic you will research in your next assignment.
Please note that you will work on the same organization in the next assignment.  Amazon will NOT be accepted as an assignment topic.

Email Format

Email Address:

Using your Lehman email address, please send me your one-page memo to: (n/A)


*Course* Section A01 – Business Email – Spring 2023: Your Full Name


Dear Professor M:

First Paragraph (about 2 sentences): Introduce yourself and explain the purpose of this email.

Second Paragraph (about 6-10 sentences):  Identify the well-known company you have chosen and the reason(s) for your selection.  Then provide an overview that includes: (a) year founded; (b) beginnings; (c) founder’s vision and values, significant innovations, milestones and/or policies that really explain in a fundamental way its growth over time; (d) current success or problems.

Third Paragraph (about 3-4 sentences): Identify its (e) headquarters location; (f) list its main products or services; (g) provide its industry classification and NAICS or SIC Code; (h) indicate its current size or industry ranking; (i) list its main competitors(s).  (Conduct an internet search of your own).

Fourth Paragraph (about 2-3 sentences):  Sharply identify the focus of your next assignment –that is,  clearly define a current issue related to this company that you will investigate next, such as for example, ways to improve Amazon Prime… don’t just say you will research Amazon Prime.

Conclusion (about 1-2 sentences): Thank the instructor for his time and provide a reply address for future correspondence.

  • For example: Thank you in advance for your time in reviewing my work. I look forward to engaging with you in this project and your valuable feedback. (Note: use your own words, not mine – don’t plagiarize!)







School of Business


Dear Prof,

My name is xxx xxxxxx and as per your assignment instructions, the purpose of this one-page memo to is to provide an overview of the topic I have chosen,, Inc.  I am interested in learning how Amazon has become one of the leading companies in the world.

Amazon was founded in 1994 by Jeff Bezos as an online bookseller, and within three months it had reached weekly revenues of $20,000. Bezos kept improving its website and creating new features that now seem ordinary, like one-click shopping, customer ratings and reviews, e-mail order verification & tracking, etc. In 1998 the company began to sell music and movie cassettes, and shortly thereafter expanded into toys and electronics. By 2005 Amazon launched Amazon Prime, a revolutionary two-day shipping service. Now, guided by its vision to “be earth’s most customer-centric company; the place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online,” Amazon has become a total retailer that controls its entire logistics chain, including its fleet of cargo planes, trailer trucks, delivery vans and warehouses, and has recently entered the trillion-dollar ocean shipping business.  

Amazon has its headquarters at 410 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109. The company operates more than 75 fulfillment centers and 25 sorting centers across North America; it is the #1 retailer in the world in term of sales (surpassing even Walmart), and employs 125,000 full-time associates. Its main product categories by dollar sales are electronics, apparel, footwear, home and kitchen goods, beauty and personal care, smart phones and accessories. 

Amazon’s primary industry is online retail and electronic shopping, and its primary NAICS Code is 454113: Mail-Order Houses. Its top competitors are Walmart, Sam’s, Costco, eBay, Kroger, Microsoft, Apple, Home Depot and Target.

The specific area of interest I will focus on in the next assignment is on improving Amazon Prime, a cutting-edge service currently priced at $139 a year that includes benefits like free two-day shipping, prime video and music, prime rewards, Whole Foods discounts, prime reading, etc.

I believe that researching how to improve Amazon Prime can broaden my knowledge and provide an understanding of what it takes to be successful in the fast-changing business world.  

Thank you for your time in reviewing my work. I look forward to both engaging in this project and your valuable feedback!


Principles of Management

Assignment 2: Business Report Executive Summary


You will write a Business Report Executive Summary to answer a specific and clearly focused research question on a topic that you already identified in Assignment 1.  The Report must include conclusions and recommendations as well as a list of the references you have consulted.


The Business Report Executive Summary must be one page, single spaced, in standard letter size, Times New Roman 12 pt. font.  It must make the reader understand its purpose clearly and quickly as well as provide conclusions and recommendations, rather than a simple summary of findings.  Plus, its recommendations must be based on the sources consulted.

The Executive Summary includes these sections:

  1. Purpose – identifies your clearly focused research question (see appendix A).
    1. Method – lists the key words that you used in your internet search (see Appendix B) to answer the research question.Conclusions – summarize what you learned from at least six (6) sources: business magazines, business newspapers, journals, databases, etc., all referenced in APA style (see Appendix C).
    1. Recommendations – list four (4) specific, source-based, action-oriented suggestions that answer the research question.

An example of the Business Report Executive Summary is provided in pages 2 and 3.  Note: use your own words, not mine – don’t plagiarize!

Please note that you have towork with the same organization utilized in Assignment 1.  Amazon cannot be accepted as a student research topic.



This Executive Summary will answer the following specific and clearly focused research question: “What new strategies can help Amazon Prime maintain its dominance over Walmart?”  Its underlying premise is that in a constantly evolving marketplace, only highly innovative approaches will ensure that an Amazon Prime membership remains the preferred option over Walmart’s membership.


Since Amazon Prime has to provide exceptional member benefits as well as outstanding customer service, the key search words I have used to obtain information on these topics were: “what is Amazon Prime”; “new member benefits at Amazon Prime”; “package delivery at Amazon Prime”; “pricing at Amazon Prime”; and “wage levels and employee satisfaction at Amazon, Inc.”


Based on six reliable business sources (see next page) I have concluded that customers increasingly want same-day shipping that fits their more efficient lifestyle.  This arises from the fact that after the COVID-19 pandemic people have become more used to the convenience of ordering food, gifts or groceries from local businesses, as well as having their orders delivered at home. Also, customers want greater benefits, higher levels of satisfaction and lower prices as they become exposed to more efficient networks and transportation systems, and greater economies of scale. 

The only way that Amazon can outperform competitors, both in so-called “last mile” delivery and in providing lowest prices and unique benefits, is by using breakthrough technologies and adopting highly creative, breakthrough approaches.


1. Expedite the conversion of vacant malls into Amazon warehouses across major metropolitan areas in the US, and eventually couple this with the use of autonomous driverless vehicles for faster “last mile” local deliveries (this is an option that should unfold progressively in the future).

2. Offer free delivery on a larger number of orders, reflecting the company’s economies of scale.

3.Expand the benefits of a Prime membership with universal money-back guarantee on every purchase (it currently applies to credit card purchases only).

4. Employee burnout at warehouses and distribution centers will remain an unsolved problem – the reason is that increased automation has produced only marginal results in alleviating work stress, and the transformative impact of 3-D printing on manufacturing, shipping and handling is still decades away. Therefore this issue will likely remain Amazon’s greatest corporate weakness for the foreseeable future, and the company can only expect to make incremental gains over time. 

Student xxx xxxxxx



The six sources I have used to conduct this in-depth research are: Big Think web expert portal, Forbes Magazine, Consumer Reports, Business Insider, Investopedia and   Specific citations are listed below:

Danziger, P.N. (2021, January 10).  Amazon’s Customer Loyalty is Astounding. Retrieved from

Consumer Reports (2022, March 1).  Pros and Cons of Amazon Prime. Retrieved from

Kate, T. (2019, October, 2).  Amazon Just Intensified the War Against Walmart. Retrieved from

Shobhit, S. (2019, September 24).  Top 5 Alternatives to Amazon Prime. Retrieved from

Timmermann, M. (2019, July 3). Amazon Prime vs. Walmart comparison. Retrieved from

Mourdoukoutas, P.  (2020, May 25).  Amazon Turns Shopping Malls IntoWarehouses, Changing America’s Community Landscape.  Retrieved from



FocusA good research question must have laser-like focus and precision.  This will impact the rest of your assignment leading to meaningful research, clear findings and conclusions and substantial recommendations.

CreativityIn order to find the topic for a good research question you must be creative. The hallmark of creativity is thinking outside the box.  It consists of looking at a company, product or service from different perspectives until you discover an interesting and useful issue worth investigating.

We are all creativeVery true – creativity flourishes when we repeatedly think about a topic, yet lies dormant when we don’t.  Have you noticed how repeated attempts at finding a solution makes you more creative?  The reason is that insistent thinking forces you look at events/ideas/ circumstances with fresh eyes, overcoming your mental blocks and limitations.

How to Develop A Good Research Question:

  1. Google some business periodicals to find headlines associated with the company you worked in Assignment 1 and the general topic you identified then.
  2. Write a list of the headlines that attract your attention;
  3. Repeatedly think about them from different angles (see issues in a new way);
  4. Write down some tentative research questions;
  5. Discard those that do not appear interesting, focused or researchable.
  6. Among the remaining ones, select the question that will allow you to do the most interesting research project;
  7. Refine your research question until it is concise, clear and focused.

Formulating a good research question will help you complete Assignment 2 in a meaningful and interesting way.

Appendix B

Top Lehman Library Sources to Begin your management Research
NameDescriptionWhen To Use
Business Source Complete  Business Source Complete includes scholarly journals, business periodicals, trade journals, industry reports, and related information. It covers such topics as management, economics, finance, accounting, international business, and much more. It also provides access to industry, market, and company research which often contain SWOT (Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats) analysis of larger companies.Use when you want to find business-oriented articles. Business Source Complete is the only campus resource that provides full-text access to Harvard Business Review (HBR) and McKinsey Quarterly.
Business Insight EssentialsBusiness Insights provides in depth coverage of businesses, including company profiles, industry profiles, products and brands, financial reports, company rankings, histories and full text periodical articles.Use it when you want to find current information on companies, and industries, analyze and compare financial and statistical data with interactive charting tools,  access company profiles and industry ranking.
Hoover’s OnlineA product of Dun & Bradstreet, Hoover’s Online provides comprehensive company profiles which contain company overviews, and histories, including coverage of private companies. In addition, Hoover’s profiles industries with information on growth, forecasts, and context about companies.Use to find product/brand name listings, competitors, product segmentation data, subsidiaries, and financial data.
NexisUniProvides access to full-text articles from thousands of publications, including full-text business, medical, legal, tax, or accounting newspapers, journals, and trade magazines. It is also an excellent source for legal research. NexisUni-Company Dossier Contains business information including company profiles, SEC filings, accounting publications, and country profiles.Use when you need to search a broad database of newspapers and magazines worldwide.   COMPANY-DOSSIER provides streamlined financial and legal information.
CQ ResearcherCQ Researcher offers in-depth, coverage of political and social issues, with regular reports on a wide range of topics including: business, health, international affairs, education, the environment, technology, the U.S. economy, crime, and civil liberties.Use when you seek original, comprehensive reporting and analysis on issues in the news.
StatistaStatista provides access to statistics and studies gathered by market researchers, trade organizations, scientific publications, and government sources on more than 600 industries. In addition to tables and charts, Statista also provides infographics and studies on selected Industries and trends.Use when you are looking for statistics visually displayed in charts and infographics.
Academy of Management JournalThe Academy of Management Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of management. It publishes empirical research that tests, extends, or builds management theory and contributes to management practice.
Academy of Management ReviewThe Academy of Management Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal on management. It publishes theoretical insights that advance the understanding of management and organizations.
Journal of ManagementThe Journal of Management is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on all aspects of management as well as the related field of industrial and organizational psychology. It publishes scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles.

California Management ReviewCalifornia Management Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal on management that covers the field of business, emphasizing strategy and organization, global competition and competitiveness, and business and public policy.
Harvard business reviewHarvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine that covers a wide range of topics that are relevant to various industries, management functions, and geographic locations. These focus on areas including leadership, organizational change, negotiation, strategy, operations, marketing, finance, and managing people
MIT Sloan Management ReviewMIT Sloan Management Review focuses on advances in management practice that are transforming how people lead and innovate.
Bloomberg businessweekBloomberg BusinessWeek follows up to date news, especially pertaining to business. Also it offers financial news, stock advice, and in-depth coverage on major businesses and business events.
fast companyCovers the latest strategies and trends in business, Fast Company cultivates a fresh minded approach to entrepreneurship.
The economistIn addition to economics and business, The Economist also delves into the world economy, providing specific information on the various economies from countries throughout the world.
New York TimesThe New York Times is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with worldwide readership. The Business Day section covers breaking news and analysis on Wall Street, technology, media, international business, banking and the stock market.
Wall Street JournalThe Wall Street Journal is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. It is published six days a week.
Financial TimesThe Financial Times (FT) is a international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.  NOTE: This resource is available from one month before the day that you search, so is good for background but not current news.


APA (American Psychological Association)        Citation Style Guidelines

To find how to cite articles, websites, books, etc. using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style:

A good overview of the APA citation style can be found on the Library’s Citation Research Guide:

In addition, below are examples of types of citations you will list as sources when presenting your research:

From a Print Book:

Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York,     NY: HarperCollins.

From an Electronic Book:

Skjærseth, J. B., & Eikeland, P. O. (Eds.). (2013). Global environmental governance : corporate     responses to EU emissions trading : resistance, innovation or responsibility?

Farnham, Surrey, GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group. Retrieved from

From The Wall Street Journal:

Peterson, K. (2010, Jul 30). TreeHouse falls 2.3%; PMI group declines 15%. Wall Street Journal.    Retrieved from 734324304?accountid=27880

From Fortune magazine:

Jaeger, J. (2010, August 7).  Social media use in the financial sector.  Fortune Magazine.

Retrieved from URL

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