Q. Assume that the southern segment of the San Andreas Fault near San Bernardino (California, USA) raptures in a major earthquake. Should people in Hawaii be concerned about an impending tsunami as a result of the earthquake? Elaborate your answer in 4 to 7 sentences.
Hint: After reading the module about earthquakes, you should know how tsunamis are related to earthquakes. What kind of earthquakes cause tsunamis (their magnitude, location, type of movement etc.). Thus, you will need to closely analyze the San Andreas Fault near San Bernardino (California, USA) and decide whether it can cause tsunami or not …..
Q. Describe at least three major volcanic hazards and their potential effects to the environment, including to humans. Your answer must use appropriate geological terms/vocabulary. Avoid general statements, rather explain your answer clearly with concrete examples.
Example: The white or sometimes dark clouds coming out of volcanic vents include toxic gases such as CO2, CH4, NO2, etc. that are harmful to humans if inhaled as well as cause different types of climate changes when they reach the atmosphere. You should give three such examples that are considered as major volcanic hazards and write more details following this example.
- Geologic time
Q. Recall that Earth’s age is 4.56 b.y. This age was determined using the U-Pb method with the half-life of 4.5 b.y. Suppose you got hold of the meteorite sample from which Earth’s age was determined and you had the opportunity to make the radiometric analysis yourself. How much U and how much Pb would you expect to find in the meteorite sample from your mass spectrometric measurements? Explain your answer.
Hint: You will need to review the concept about “half-life” and what proportions or percentages of the parent (U) and daughter (Pb) can accumulate/remain in the sample (meteorite) after certain half-lives.
- Mass movement
Q. Name a major mass movement (landslide) that occurred during the past decade from anywhere in the world and describe its main features in no more than 8 sentences.
Hint: Try to find from reputable journals including major magazines and articles an account of recent, but no older than 10 years ago, landslide preferably near your city or county or at least from your state. Describe its magnitude, the location, what caused or triggered it, and what was the environmental and/or human impact. You must also write what source you used (reference/works cited).
Q. Explain how streams and groundwater are related to geology. Your answer must use appropriate geological terms/vocabulary. Avoid general statements, rather explain your answer clearly with concrete examples.
Hint: Consider among other things the fact that water that comes into contact with rocks and minerals either on the ground surface or beneath the surface contribute to the weathering of the minerals and rocks; and running water (streams) shapes our landscape by eroding the weathered rocks. Based on this hint but not necessarily limited to these two aspects, write certain details about how water is an important weathering and erosional agent.
- Geologic Resources
Q. How does the exploration, extraction, transportation, and use of geologic resources impact our environment, including to humans. Your answer must use appropriate geological terms/vocabulary. Avoid general statements, rather explain your answer clearly with concrete examples.
Hint: Geologic resources such as industrial minerals, rocks, geothermal, coal, natural gas, petroleum, etc are essential for our development. However, there are also negative impacts of such resources. Focus on one geologic resource and discuss how the way we explore, extract, process, transport, and use it impacts our environment, including to humans.
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