After viewing the animation, answer these questions.

  1. Cells derive energy from the of nutrients, such as            .
  2. The oxidation of to occurs through a series of steps called            .
  3. How many carbons are in a molecule of glucose?
  4. Name the two initials steps in glycolysis.
  5. What are the three molecules that results?
  6. What then occurs to the 6-carbon molecule?
  7. The 3-carbon molecules are converted to           .
  8. What happens to the electrons in this reaction? What two molecules are formed?
  9. What happens to the pyruvate under aerobic conditions?
  10. What happens to the pyruvate under anaerobic conditions?


After viewing the animation, answer these questions

  1. Molecules dissolved in a solution are in constant                      due to their           .
  2. One result of this motion is           .
  3. This tendency of molecules to spread out is an example of           .
  4. Even as a solid lump, the individual sugar molecules are
  5. What happens to the lump of sugar when it is dropped into the water?
  6. How do the individual sugar molecules move?
  7. How does this movement define diffusion?
  8. How long does diffusion continue?
  9. What factors affect the rate of diffusion?


After viewing the animation, answer these questions.

  1. What is diffusion?



  1. What does this process allow?



  1. Do most polar molecules freely cross the lipid cells membrane? Name two groups of polar molecules.



  1. What is the name for the special case of diffusion that involves the movement of water molecules across a membrane?



  1.  Why is a molecule of urea unable to diffuse across the membrane?



  1. How does a urea molecule interact with water molecules? Why?



  1. Why is there now a net movement of water molecules? Which direction do they move?



  1.  What happens to the water level on the side of the beaker why the water molecules are moving into?



  1. Define isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic.





Facilitated Diffusion


After viewing the animation, answer these questions.



  1. What occurs in the process of facilitated diffusion?



  1.  What is unique about the carrier molecules and the molecules to which they bind?



  1.  Once the molecule binds to the carrier protein, the protein will facilitate the diffusion process by            .



  1. Facilitated diffusion and simple diffusion are similar in that both            .



  1.  How is facilitated diffusion different from simple diffusion?



  1.  What determines which direction facilitated diffusion occurs?


After viewing the animation, answer these questions.

  1.  Which direction can small molecules, such as sugars and amino acids, be transported?
  2.  How does the sugar move? How does the concentration of sugar compare inside and outside of the cell?
  3. How is this transport of sugar driven through a coupled transport protein? Are these counterions moving from a higher to lower concentration or from a lower to higher concentration?
  4. What is symport? Why occurs there?
  5.  How is a low concentration of sodium maintained inside the cell? How is it powered?
  6.  What is counter-transport?
  7. What is an antiport? What occurs there? How is this different that what occurs at a symport?
  8.  How does the sodium-potassium pump come into play in this process?


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