Central Nervous System

Post 1: Language and the brain

 The brain is a very interesting organ. The human brain is divided into two parts: a right and left hemisphere. The left side of the brain involves language and analysis. The left side of the hemisphere has many functions of the brain.  Today we are going to focus on the language of the brain include reading, writing, speaking, sign language and understanding words. The aspect of language is controlled by regions in the opposite. Scientist say that left brained are mathematician or scientist. So, neither hemispheres are dominant, but each has specialized for certain tasks. Left hemisphere is the categorical one in 96% of right-handed people and the right hemisphere in 4%.

The brain has different regions that control each function.

  1. The Broca area is located in the inferior prep frontal cortex of the hemisphere. This area prepares an individual to speak or sign, the area generates a motor program for the muscles of larynx, tongue, cheeks and lips to produce speech and hand motions.
  2. Wernicke area is responsible for the recognition of spoken and written language.
  3. Angular gyrus is a part of the parietal lobe just caudal and superior to the Wernicke area which is important in the ability to read and write
  4. Motor Cortex recognize your brain as the part of your body that allows you to think, remember and make decisions. 
  5. Visual cortex of brain cerebral cortex

Aphasia due to lesions in the broca area result in slow speech difficulty choosing words or use of word. The left of the hemisphere is called categorical hemisphere it is specialized for spoken and written language and for the sequential and analytical. The left hemisphere of the brain includes analytical, logical, sequential, objective, and rational. Owing to these characteristics, people with dominance on the left side of their brain tend to have a rational approach towards life.

Post 2: Nervous Tissue

The nervous tissue can send and receive electrochemical signals to provide the body with information.  The nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which are also known as two major anatomical subdivisions.

The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The brain control memory and consciousness as well as digestion and respiration. The brain consists of the brain stem, cerebrum, cerebellum…

The PNS contains all the nervous tissue external to the CNS. It is divided into sensory and motor divisions, which is further divided into somatic and autonomic (visceral) subdivisions.

The sensory or afferent neurons send sensory signals to the central nervous system. They detect temperature, pain, touch, light… You also have efferent neurons known as the motor division that send signals from the CNS to muscles and glands.

The motor division is divided into somatic and autonomic nervous system (ANS). The somatic nervous system controls conscious activities. It picks up sensory information and carry them to the CNS. For example, touching a hot stove the sensory nerves take information about the heat to the brain, which then tells the muscles of the hand to move immediately. On the other hand, autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls subconscious activities. The ANS controls the involuntary activities of the smooth, cardiac muscle and certain glands.

The ANS is subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division is most active during physical activity and controls the body response to sense a threat by letting the body know to act (“fight or flight”). Whereas, the parasympathetic division controls homeostasis and put the body at rest. For example, regulates resting functions, such as emptying the urinary bladder, and slowing the heartbeat.

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