Normal estrogen function is important for preventing osteoporosis in both men and women. Estrogen works to prevent osteoporosis in which of the following ways?
a) By decreasing the erosive activity of osteoclasts
b) By promoting osteoclastogenesis
c) By inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis
d) All of the above
Which of the following tests should you order to confirm Mr.W’s diagnosis?
a) Bone scan
b) Computed tomography (CT) scan
c) X-ray of the foot
d) Culture of the ulcer
One of the initial steps in assessing patients with musculoskeletal complaints is to determine whether the complaint is articular or nonarticular in origin. Which of the following is an example of an articular structure?
Mr. S presents in the clinic with pain, tenderness, erythema, and swelling of his left great toe. The clinician suspects acute gout. Which of the following should the clinician expect in the initial test results for this patient?
a) Elevated uric acid level
b) Elevated blood urea nitrogen
c) Decreased urine pH
d) Decreased C-reactive protein
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