Theoretical Approaches

Question 1

The brain’s interpretation of stimuli informs perception. Two theoretical approaches to perception include bottom-up and top-down perception.

Bottom-up perception describes the perception of stimuli based on concrete characteristics. Top-down perception describes perception of external stimuli based on prior knowledge about their properties. Cognitive psychologists study how and when individuals employ these two types of perception to determine their significance and to shed light on human experiences of the world.

For this Discussion, consider differences between bottom-up and top-down perception.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post a brief explanation of the active nature of perception. Then explain two differences between bottom-up and top-down perception. Finally, provide one example of how everyday experience would be altered if bottom-up perception were impaired, as well as one example of how everyday experience would be altered if top-down perception were impaired.

Support your response using at least 3 references. APA Format. 2-3 paragraphs.

Question 2

Imagine a baby learning words for the first time from immediate family members and close relatives. Picture a group of adolescents preparing for an exam in a second language. Envision adults using language-learning software before travel to a foreign country. Consider the effects of biology and environment on language acquisition in these examples.

Compare the ease of learning one’s native language as a child to the acquisition of a second language as a teenager or an adult. Do some individuals pick up new languages more easily than others? Do some children acquire language skills more readily? What might answers to these questions indicate as to the contributions of biological and environmental factors to language acquisition?

For this Discussion, select one biological and one environmental factor that influence native and second language acquisition. Consider how each factor might influence both native and second language acquisition.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post a description of the biological and environmental factors that you selected. Then explain how each might influence native and second language acquisition. Support your response using at least scholarly 3 references. APA Format. 2-3 paragraphs.

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