Physiological Responses

1. Why a normal axon always propagates action potentials from the axon hillock to axon terminals?

2.Briefly describe the contraction mechanism in skeletal muscles (the sliding filament model), and emphasize on how Ca++ and troponin control the muscle contraction.

3.Briefly describe how gastrointestinal function after a meal is coordinated by hormones secreted by endocrine cells in the gut epithelium.

4.homeostatis depends on feedback circuits. Give a negative feedback sample of physiological responses for homeostatis in the human body?

5.Using the gate control theory of pain modulation to explain why applying touch or other non painful stimulus to the ache site of the body can reduce pain feeling?

Question 2

Confucius appears to have thought that the quality of a class or collective (e.g. the state of a society) was entirely determined by the attributes of its members or individuals (e.g. the character of each citizen) and their relations with each other:

“‘If there is righteousness in the heart, there will be beauty in the character. If there is beauty in the character, there will be harmony in the home. If there be harmony in the home, there will be order in the nation. If there be order in the nation, there will be peace in the world.’” (Smith, quoting Confucius, 173-4)

What do you think of this sort of a worldview? Is the presence or absence of peace in the world due entirely to our personal triumphs or failings? Why or why not? What role does religion play in forming individuals and by implication, entire societies?

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