Cardiac output

1. Findings from an assessment of a 70-year-old patient with swelling in his ankles include jugular venous pusations, 5 cm above the sternal angle when the head of his bed is eleveted 45°. The FNP knows that this finding indicate: 

a. Decreased fluid volume. 

b. Increased cardiac output. 

c. Narrowing of jugular veins. 

d. Elevated pressure related to heart failure. 

2. The component of the conduction system referred to as the pacemaker of the heart is the 

a. Atrioventricular (AV) node. 

b. Sinoatrial (SA) node.

c. Bundle of His. 

d. Bundle branches. 

3. The FNP is reviewing anatomy and physiology of the heart. Which statement best describes by atrial kick? 

a. The atria contract during systole and attempt to push against closed valves. 

b. Contraction of the atria at the beginning of diastole can be felt as a palpitation. 

c. Atrial kick is the pressure exerted against the atria as the ventricles contract during systole. 

d. The atria contract toward the end of diastole and push the remaining blood into the ventricles. 

4. A 45-year-old man is in the clinic for a routine physical. During history the patient states he has been having difficulty sleeping. I’ll be sleeping great and then I wake up and feel like I can’t catch my breath. The FNP‘s best response to this would be 

a. “When was your last electrocardiogram?” 

b. “It’s probably because it’s been so hot at night.” 

c. “Do you have any history of problems with your heart?” 

d. “Have you had a recent sinus infection or upper respiratory infection?” 

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